Gross
Average Audience (GAA Rating) 

The estimate which reflects
the sum of all tuning and viewing minutes to a
program. Tuning and viewing to the same minute
of program (or its repeat telecast) is counted
each time. 

GRPs
The sum of all ratings for all programs
in an advertising schedule. One rating point equals
one percent of total audience (universe). 

GRPs (%)
Impressions (000) / Universe Estimates
Rating (%) x #Spots
Reach (%) x Frequency 

Gross Impressions
The total number of households, or persons, exposed
to an advertising schedule. 

Gross Impressions (000) =
GRPs (%) x Universe (000) 



Viewers
Per Viewing Household (VPVH) 

Estimated number
of viewers, usually classified by age and sex,
recorded as comprising the audience within those
households turned to a given station or program
or using television during a particular time period. 

VPVH =
Persons Projection (000) / Household
Projection (000) 

Example: 

Persons Projection (000)
/ Household Projection (000)
22,191 M2554 (000) / 72,049
HH (000) = .308 M2554 VPVH 




Cost
Per Thousand (CPM) 

The cost to deliver
1,000 people or homes. The figure is obtained
by divided the cost of an ad by the size of the
audience in thousands. 
CPM =
Media Cost / Gross Impressions (000)
Average Unity Cost / AA (000) 

Example: 

Media Cost / Gross Impressions
(000)
$1.5 Million / 85,000 = $17.6 




Cost
Per Point (CPP) 

The cost to
deliver a single rating point (1% of the defined
population). This figure is obtained by dividing
the total cost by the number of rating points. 

CPP =
Average Unit Cost / Rating (%)
Total Schedule Cost / GRP’s
(%) 



Reach
& Frequency 

Reach/Cume/Cumulative
Audience
The number of different homes/people exposed at
least once to a program or commercial across a
stated period of time. Also called the cumulative
or unduplicated audience. 

The homes/people exposed two
or more times are only counted once. The maximum
reach, therefore, is 100% of TV households or
persons. 

Reach (%) =
GRP’s (%) / Frequency 

Example: 

GRP’s (%) /
Frequency
300/5.0 = 60% 


Frequency
Refers to the average number of times households
or persons viewed a given program, channel, or
advertisement during a specific time period. 

Frequency =
GRP’s (%) / Reach (%) 

Example: 

If a group of programs achieved
30 GRPs and a CUME of 20, then the average
frequency would be 1.5 exposures per person
or household. 


Frequency Distribution
An array of reach according to the level of frequency
delivered to each group. 

Example: 

3+ reach (saw program or commercial
at least three times)
Distribution Array: 2+,3+,4+,5+,6+,etc… 




Average
Hours of Viewing 

Occasionally it is necessary
to convert HUT/PUT
% data to average hours of viewing per homes/person.
The two measurements are simply different ways
to express the same statistic. 

AVG. HOURS =
Duration of the period x Hut % 

Example: 

MondaySunday 711pm duration
is 7days x 4 hours (or 28 hours). If we
assume a 70% HUT….
28 hours x .70 = 19.6 hours/week
Average Hours: Minutes would be 19 + (.6
x 60 min) = 19 hrs, 36 mins. 




Calculating
Nationalized Cable Ratings From a Cable Universe 

If FX has a .8 HH
cable rating and we know that FX Coverage
Universe (000) is 65,070… 

1. Calculate the Coverage
Impressions…
CVG RTG % = Coverage Impressions (000) /
Coverage Universe (000)
.8 = Coverage Impressions (000) /
65070
Coverage Impressions = 52,056 

2. Impressions are Constant…
If national universe for cable is 102,200 (000)
RTG % = Impressions (000) / Universe
(000)
RTG % = 52,056 / 102,200
RTG% = .5 
