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Audience Measures and Formulas: Part I

This area contains numerous formulas you can use for the measuring of cable audiences.
Click here for Part 2

Average Audience (AA)  
Can be expressed as a rating (%) or projected audience (000). The "AA" reflects viewing for an average minute to a program and is an average of the audience at minute 1, 2,3, etc.
Average Audience (Rating %)
The percent of the universe of households or persons viewing a TV program during the average minute.
 
When we say Mathematically it means ...
10 rating .1 or 10%
.1 rating .001 or .01%
 
Rating % =
AA Projection (000) / Universe Estimate (000)
GRPs (%)  /   # Spots
HUT (%)   x  Share (%)
 
Examples:  
Share %  x  Hut %
4.3 x 61.2%  (or .612) = 2.63
Delivery / UE
(2,775,000 / 105,500,000)   x  100 = 2.63
Note: You can't add ratings together because they are percentages, so do not add M18-49 RTG + W18-49 RTG to get A18-49 RTG.
 
   
Projections/Delivery/Impressions  
Average Audience Projection (000)
A rating expressed in numeric rather than percent form.
 
Average Audience Projection (000)=
Rating (%) x Universe (000)
 
VPVH  x  HHAA (000)
Impressions (000)  /   # Spots
 
Example:  
RTG (%)  x  Universe (000)
2.63%  (or .0263)  x  105,500,000 = 2,775,000
Note: You can't add ratings of different denominators together so cannot add M18-49 RTG  + W18-49 RTG  to get A18-49 RTG.
 
   
Coverage Rating  
Coverage
The percentage of homes or persons receiving a particular broadcast signal within a specific geographic area.
 
Coverage RTG % =
Coverage AA Projection (000)  /  Coverage Universe Estimator (000)
 
   
HUTs / PUTs  
Households Using Television (HUT)
Total viewing to all telelvision
 
HUT (%) =
#HH with TV sets on (000)  /   Total HH Universe (000)
 
HH RTG %  /  Share %  
Examples:  
HH RTG % / HH Share %
(2.6/ 4.3) x 100 = 60.5%
#HH with TV sets on (000) / Total HH Universe (000)
(64,596,000 / 105,500,000) x 100 = 61.2%
Note: The sum of the average ratings for a give time period may be higher than the HUT because of viewing in multiple-set TV households. If a household is watching two programs, it is counted toward each program rating, but only once towards HUT.
 
Persons Using Television (PUT)
The percentage of all persons within as given demographic category in the survey area who are viewing television during a specific period of time.
 
PUT (%) =
# Persons with TV sets on (000)  /   Total Persons Universe
Demo Rtg %  /   Demo Share %
 
   
Share of Audience  
Share (or Share of Audience)
The percent of households using television (HUT), which are tuned to a specific program at a specified time.
 
Share (%) =
Rating (%)  /  HUT %
 
Example:  
Rating (%) / HUT %
{2.6 (or .026) / 61.2 (or .612)} x 100 = 4.2
Note: Difference between share and rating is that share is percentage of HUT (Household Using TV) whereas the Rating is percentage of the universe. In essence for share, the TV set must be on whereas for rating the TV set may be on or off…it’s a percentage of the whole TV universe.
 

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